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User Image voguevirologist Posted: Dec 18, 2017 11:05 AM (UTC)

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New vaccines are made with adjuvants based on injected oil-in-water preparations based on squalene which are known to cause profound, chronic inflammatory response throughout the body, leading to ailments similar to those known was “Gulf War Syndrome”. These adjuvants, or immune system irritants, are so toxic that they have been rejected for testing in the US previously and no vaccine containing them has ever been approved in the US.

Immunologic adjuvants are substances, administered in conjunction with a vaccine, that stimulate the immune system and increase the response to the vaccine. Squalene is not itself an adjuvant, but it has been used in conjunction with surfactants in certain adjuvant formulations.

An adjuvant using squalene is Novartis' proprietary MF59, which is added to influenza vaccines to help stimulate the human body's immune response through production of CD4memory cells. It is the first oil-in-water influenza vaccine adjuvant to be commercialized in combination with a seasonal influenza virus vaccine. It was developed in the 1990s by researchers at Ciba-Geigy and Chiron; both companies were subsequently acquired by Novartis.

However, the mechanism of action remains unknown. MF59 is capable of switching on a number of genes that partially overlap with those activated by other adjuvants.

A 2009 meta-analysis assessed data from 64 clinical trials of influenza vaccines with the squalene-containing adjuvant MF59 and compared them to the effects of vaccines with no adjuvant. The analysis reported that the adjuvanted vaccines were associated with slightly lower risks of chronic diseases, but that neither type of vaccines altered the rate of autoimmune diseases; the authors concluded that their data "supports the good safety profile associated with MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccines and suggests there may be a clinical benefit over non-MF59-containing vaccines".
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