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Valencia Elba Champá Peña
rent___ Me da igual prensá, indica o sativa 9h

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X-Pro II Elba Champá Peña
aabrilbsb Y por fin a descansar #marmota 9h

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rosezinha Jogada de cabelo "a la Joelma" #hair #cacheadas #calypso #waves #marmota 12h

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lynxloveschamois Infanticide is far from being an exceptional event. Thus, since 1990, seven instances of infanticide were observed at La Grande Sassière. Each of these infanticides was perpetrated by a male who had recently ousted a dominant male and taken over his territory (Perrin et al. 1994; Coulon et al., 1995; Hackländer and Arnold 1999). This rate of infanticide is probably an underestimate, given that researchers can identify with certainty only the infanticide of pups who have emerged from the burrow. However, it is extremely rare to see the emergence of a litter when a male takes possession of a territory early in the active period, suggesting that reproduction was somehow blocked or that infanticide occurred inside the natal burrow (Hackländer and Arnold 1999). Although many hypotheses exist concerning the adaptive value of infanticide, the sexual selection hypothesis seems most likely to apply to the Alpine marmot. This hypothesis suggests that infanticide is a way for the new dominant male to help insure his future reproductive success. Even though the female will not begin a new estrus until the following spring spring in Alpine marmot, the new male would still be limitingover  maternal investment in unrelated young, thus preserving the female’s reproductive potential for the future (Coulon et al., 1995; Hackländer and Arnold 1999). #marmot#marmotte#marmotta#murmeltier#mungg#munggä#munggini#cypok#marmota#alpine#youngsters#wildlife#animal_babies#svizac#svist#murmeldjur#hunting#chasse#caccia#caza#jakt#jagd#hochjagd#solidsonly#vinterdvala#torpor#hibernate#goodfat#corticoid#medicine# 13h

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lynxloveschamois Alpine marmots reproduce annually. The two dominant individuals mate within 15 days of coming out of hibernation. The female is receptive for only 24 hours (as observed in a zoo, Müller-Using 1957). It is not uncommon for a dominant female to skip a year between litters: only 66% of dominant females breed any given year (Arnold 1993). Gestation lasts thirty days, with the females giving birth in May. The newborn pups remain in the burrow where they are breast fed for forty days. The weaned pups then emerge from the burrow in between mid-June and mid-July.

Weaned litters contain from one to seven young, with an average of 4.1 young per litter for the population of La Grand Sassière (Allaine et al. 2000). Taken as a whole, more males than females are born in this population (Allaine et al., 2000). However, within a given family group, the male/female birth ratio can vary. In the population of La Grande Sassière, litters born in the absence of subordinate males have a sex ratio skewed in favor of males, whereas litters born in the presence of subordinate males have a balanced sex ratio (Allaine 2004). Although only the dominant female provides parental care to its young, the Alpine marmot is considered as a cooperative breeder (Blumstein and Armitage 1999). Individual subordinate males indirectly help raise the young not only through participation in surveillance of the family’s territory, but also through social hibernation (see the hibernation section). Cooperative breeding could explain why the sex ratio at birth is biased towards males: juvenile survival increases in the presence of subordinate males but not in the presence of subordinate females (Arnold 1993; Allaine et al. 2000; Allaine 2004). #marmot#marmotte#marmotta#murmeltier#mungg#munggä#munggini#cypok#marmota#alpine#wildlife#babyanimal#svizac#svist#murmeldjur#hunting#chasse#caccia#caza#jakt#jagd#hochjagd#solidsonly#vinterdvala#torpor#hibernate#goodfat#corticoid#medicine#
13h

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lynxloveschamois Alpine marmots are generally monogamous (they keep the same partner for one or more reproductive events). Within a family group, only the dominant pair regularly mates and raises, young since the dominant pair supresses the reproductive functions of subordinate males and females (Arnold et Dittami 1997; Hackländer et al. 2003). Vehrencamp (1983) thus classifies this species as “despotic”, as ooposed to egalitarian.

However, during the mating season, the dominant male increased his antagonistic interactions with subordinate males, while during gestation, the dominant female similarly increased her antagonistic interactions with subordinate females. This rise in antagonistic interactions results in increased glucocorticoid levels in the subordinates of both sexes, which suppresses their reproductive functions (Arnold et Dittami 1997; Hackländer et al. 2003). For example, dominant individuals frequently attack unrelated subordinates of the same sex, whereas interactions between dominant individuals and their sons and daughters generally remain amicable. These behaviors suggest that suppression of reproduction is mainly directed towards subordinates who are not closely related genetically to the dominant individuals (Arnold et Dittami 1997). #marmot#marmotte#marmotta#murmeltier#mungg#munggä#munggini#cypok#marmota#alpine#wildlife#babyanimal#svizac#svist#murmeldjur#hunting#chasse#caccia#caza#jakt#jagd#hochjagd#harvestfood#solidsonly#vinterdvala#torpor#hibernate#goodfat#corticoid#medicine#
13h

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luu_fereto Como no adorar a personas como él. #Marmota #Love #Me 16h

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solimarcr Jajajajajaaj #dieta #marmota #lol 16h

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leticiiaqueiroz Nem todas palavras ou atitudes irão expressar o tamanho da gratidão de ter você como mãe , hoje é um dia especial não só porque é seu , mas porque comemora-se mais um ano de vida de uma mulher que tem o coração enorme, e é acima de tudo verdadeira para com todos os assuntos . O meu único pedido é que fosse eterna , quem te conhece sabe do carisma e da alegria que você passa só por falar , eu te admiro muito , por toda sua luta e me espelho em você nunca desistir e sempre procurar progredir , te amo muito ! #marmota #pamonha #nega #angu #jacu #apelidoscarinhosos #mesmoassimseiquemeamatambem 1d

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aguusgorgerino A las 7.30 de la mañana
Maxi : dale levantate , pasame una foto de q estas despierta
Yo : (mando esa foto)
JAJAJAJAJAJAJAJAJAJAJJAJAJAJAJAJAJAJA MI CARA DE PLACER JAJAJAJAJAJABAJAJAJAJA ME CAUSA MUCHA GRACIA JAJAJAJAJAJAJAJAJAJAJAJAJAJAJAJ
#dormir #es #lo #mio #aguatedormir #marmota #yoyo #JAJAJAJA
1d

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