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21h raad_nile
Normal رعد نيل
raad_nile carat (gold purity), carat (mass) قيراط qīrāt a small unit of weight, defined as one-twentyfourth (1/24) of the weight of a certain coin namely the medieval Arabic gold dinar, and alternatively defined by reference to a weight of (e.g.) 3 barley seeds. In medieval Arabic the word was also used with the meaning of 1/24th of the money value of a gold dinar coin. In the Western languages the word was adopted as a measurement term for the proportion of gold in a gold alloy, especially in a gold coin, beginning in Italy in the mid-13th century, occurring soon after some city-states of Italy started new issues of pure gold coins. 21h

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raad_nile aubergine البادنجان al-bādinjān
The plant is native to India. It was unknown to the ancient Greeks and Romans. It was introduced to the Mediterranean region by the medieval Arabs. The Arabic name entered Romance languages late medievally, from which comes today's Spanish berenjena = "aubergine". The Catalan albergínia = "aubergine" has records starting either 13th century or early 14th century.The Catalan was the parent of the French aubergine, which starts in the mid 18th century and which embodies a change from al- to au- that happened in French.
2d

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raad_nile Serendipity
This word was created in English in 1754 from "Serendip", an old fairy-tale place, from سرنديب Serendīb, an old Arabic name for the island of Sri Lanka. Fortified in English by its resemblance to the etymologically unrelated "serenity". The tale with the serendipitous happenings was The Three Princes of Serendip. #zamalek
2d

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raad_nile attar (of roses) عطر ʿitr perfume, aroma.
The English word came from the Hindi/Urdu-speaking area of northeast India in the late 18th century and its source was the Hindi/Urdu atr | itr = "perfume",which had come from the Persian ʿitr = "perfume", and the Persian had come medievally from the Arabic ʿitr.
3d

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raad_nile assassin حشاشين ḥashāshīn
an Arabic nickname for the Nizari Ismaili religious sect in the Levant during the Crusades era. This sect carried out assassinations against chiefs of other sects, including Crusading Christians, and the story circulated throughout western Europe at the time (13th century and late 12th). In Latin, French & Italian, the sect was called the Assassini, and it is well understood why the word-form got phonetically changed from Arabic Hashāshīn to Latinate Assassini. Generalization of the sect's nickname to the meaning of any kind of assassin happened in Italian at the start of the 14th century. The Italian word entered French and English in the 16th century.
4d

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raad_nile arsenal دار صناعة dār sināʿa, literally "house of manufacturing" but in practice in medieval Arabic it meant government-run manufacturing, usually for the military, most notably for the navy. 4d

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raad_nile apricot البرقوق al-barqūq
The Arabic was passed onto the late medieval Spanish albarcoque and Catalan albercoc, each meaning apricot. In French it starts around the 1520s as abricot and aubercot meaning apricot. Early spellings in English included abrecok (year 1551), abrecox (1578), apricock (1593).
5d
  •   martianass Great ! 5d
  •   joslutz Love your linguistic and historic captures @raad_nile 4d
  •   raad_nile @joslutz you're too kind :-) 4d
  •   bethibrahim Thanks for being so specific about locations @raad_nile 4d
  •   raad_nile Ask anytime. I always stumble upon these places through strange circumstances. @bethibrahim 4d
  •   raad_nile Plus this place rooftop made me feel I wasn't in Cairo at all. Birds chirping. Basically if groppi is behind your back don't take the sharp left but the second left on in the roundabout...then you will find a crummy sign on the right side of the road indicating the hotel. Go inside lift make sure to close all doors after entering and leaving. Go up to the last floor. Get out and then walk but the steel staircase. Then voilà you've entered the small square above the roof top. @bethibrahim 4d
  •   raad_nile *walk up the steel 4d
  •   bethibrahim 4d

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raad_nile alkali القلي al-qalī | al-qilī,
an alkaline material derived from the ashes of plants, specifically plants that grew on salty soils — glassworts aka saltworts. The Arabs used it as an ingredient in making glass and making soap. The word's early records in the West are in Latin alchemy texts in and around the early 13th century, with the same meaning as the Arabic.
6d
  •   londoneya Nice!! I was there a few months ago and couldn't get a good shot due to all the traffic around me 😶 6d
  •   raad_nile Yeah I thought a group of guys next to me were gonna grope my lovely none existent ass haha @londoneya 6d
  •   raad_nile There's a bird if u can spot it 6d
  •   londoneya ! I got the scare of my life right here when a beggar aggressively approached me and loudly asked for money. I thought my camera was in danger! @raad_nile 6d
  •   raad_nile Lol 6d
  •   peaceroaddesigns An iconic downtown landmark. I've had coffee here many times. 6d
  •   raad_nile Pretty gorgeous was closed when I was there :-/ @peaceroaddesigns 6d

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raad_nile alidade العضادة al-ʿiḍāda
العضادة al-ʿiḍāda (from ʿiḍad, pivoting arm), the rotary dial for angular positioning on the Astrolabe surveying instrument used in astronomy. The word with that meaning was used by, e.g., the astronomers Abū al-Wafā' Būzjānī (died 998) and Abu al-Salt (died 1134). The word with the same meaning entered Latin in the Late Middle Ages in the context of Astrolabes. Crossref azimuth, which entered the Western languages on the same pathway.
7d

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raad_nile algorithm, algorism الخوارزمي
al-khwārizmī, a short name for the mathematician Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (died c. 850). The appellation al-Khwārizmī means "from Khwarizm". The Latinization of this name to "Algorismi" in the 12th century gave rise to algorismus in the early 13th century.
7d

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raad_nile algebra الجبر al-jabr completing, or restoring broken parts. The word's mathematical use has its earliest record in Arabic in the title of the book "al-mukhtaṣar fī ḥisāb al-jabr wa al-muqābala", translatable as "The Compendium on Calculation by Restoring and Balancing", by the 9th-century mathematician Mohammed Ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi. 7d

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raad_nile alfalfa
الفصفصة al-fisfisa, alfalfa. The Arabic entered medieval Spanish. In medieval Spain alfalfa had a reputation as the best fodder for horses. The ancient Romans grew alfalfa but called it an entirely different name; history of alfalfa. The English name started in the far-west USA in the mid-19th century from Spanish alfalfa.
1w

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raad_nile Alcove القبّة al-qobba "the vault" or cupola. 1w

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