nasagoddard Merging galaxies break radio silence.

A team of astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope found an unambiguous link between the presence of supermassive black holes that power high-speed, radio-signal-emitting jets and the merger history of their host galaxies. Almost all galaxies with the jets were found to be merging with another galaxy, or to have done so recently.

Credit: NASA/ESA/STScI #nasagoddard #Hubble #space #BlackHole #galaxy
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nasagoddard The fully-integrated GOES-R satellite is shown in a clean room at a Lockheed Martin facility in Littleton, Colorado. The GOES-R satellite recently completed its pre-environmental review and is ready for the environmental testing phase. Environmental testing is intended to simulate the harsh conditions of launch and the space environment once the satellite is in orbit. The GOES-R satellite and its instruments will undergo a variety of rigorous tests which include vibration, acoustics, and subjecting the satellite to extreme thermal temperatures in a vacuum chamber.

Credit: Lockheed Martin #nasagoddard
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nasagoddard Technicians work with the secondary mirror of the James Webb Space Telescope in a clean room at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

Credits: NASA/Goddard/Chris Gunn #nasagoddard #JWST #Webb
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nasagoddard Hubble Spots the Layers of NGC 3923

The glowing object in this Hubble Space Telescope image is an elliptical galaxy called NGC 3923. It is located over 90 million light-years away in the constellation of Hydra.

NGC 3923 is an example of a shell galaxy where the stars in its halo are arranged in layers.

Finding concentric shells of stars enclosing a galaxy is quite common and is observed in many elliptical galaxies. In fact, every tenth elliptical galaxy exhibits this onion-like structure, which has never been observed in spiral galaxies. The shell-like structures are thought to develop as a consequence of galactic cannibalism, when a larger galaxy ingests a smaller companion. As the two centers approach, they initially oscillate about a common center, and this oscillation ripples outwards forming the shells of stars just as ripples on a pond spread when the surface is disturbed.

NGC 3923 has over twenty shells, with only a few of the outer ones visible in this image, and its shells are much more subtle than those of other shell galaxies. The shells of this galaxy are also interestingly symmetrical, while other shell galaxies are more skewed.

Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA #nasagoddard #space #Hubble #galaxy
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nasagoddard Hubble Catches Stellar Exodus in Action

Using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers have captured for the first time snapshots of fledging white dwarf stars beginning their slow-paced, 40-million-year migration from the crowded center of an ancient star cluster to the less populated suburbs.

White dwarfs are the burned-out relics of stars that rapidly lose mass, cool down and shut off their nuclear furnaces. As these glowing carcasses age and shed weight, their orbits begin to expand outward from the star cluster’s packed downtown. This migration is caused by a gravitational tussle among stars inside the cluster. Globular star clusters sort out stars according to their mass, governed by a gravitational billiard ball game where lower mass stars rob momentum from more massive stars. The result is that heavier stars slow down and sink to the cluster's core, while lighter stars pick up speed and move across the cluster to the edge. This process is known as "mass segregation." Until these Hubble observations, astronomers had never definitively seen the dynamical conveyor belt in action.

Astronomers used Hubble to watch the white-dwarf exodus in the globular star cluster 47 Tucanae, a dense swarm of hundreds of thousands of stars in our Milky Way galaxy. The cluster resides 16,700 light-years away in the southern constellation Tucana.

Credits: NASA, ESA, and H. Richer and J. Heyl (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada); acknowledgement: J. Mack (STScI) and G. Piotto (University of Padova, Italy) #nasagoddard #space #Hubble
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nasagoddard The U.S. hasn’t experienced the landfall of a Category 3 hurricane or larger since 2005, when Dennis, Katrina, Rita and Wilma all hit the U.S. coast. According to a new NASA study, a string of nine years without a major hurricane landfall in the U.S. is likely to come along only once every 177 years. The current nine-year “drought” is the longest period of time that has passed without a major hurricane making landfall in the U.S. since reliable records began in 1850.

Green lines are hurricanes that didn’t make landfall. Yellow lines are hurricanes that did make landfall but weren’t Category 3 or higher storms at the time.

Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center #nasagoddard #hurricane #Katrina
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nasagoddard Scientists and crew with NASA’s Operation IceBridge, which makes annual aerial surveys of polar ice, are wrapping up their seventh campaign over the Arctic. In spring 2015, the team began using a different research aircraft—an adapted C-130 Hercules.

They also added four new high-priority targets in the rapidly changing region of
northeast Greenland. Many of the flights, however, were routine. And that’s exactly the point; making measurements over the same path each year provides continuity between NA A’s Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation atellite (ICE at) missions—the first of which ended in 2009 and the second of which is scheduled for launch in 2017. Repeat measurements show how a landscape changes over time.
One area that has been surveyed repeatedly is northern Greenland’s Ryder Glacier.

Taken during the IceBridge flight on May 6, 2015, shows a large moulin—dozens of
meters across—atop this glacier. Moulins are holes in the ice sheet that drain melt
water from the ice sheet’s surface to the bottom or out to the sea. cientists are working to figure out what happens to melt water once it enters a moulin.

Photographs by John onntag, NA A’s Operation IceBridge. Caption by Kathryn
Hansen. Via NA A's Earth Observatory #nasagoddard #ice #snow #greenland #arctic
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nasagoddard Engineers Clean Mirror with Carbon Dioxide Snow

Just like drivers sometimes use snow to clean their car mirrors in winter, two Exelis Inc. engineers are practicing "snow cleaning'" on a test telescope mirror for the James Webb Space Telescope at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. By shooting carbon dioxide snow at the surface, engineers are able to clean large telescope mirrors without scratching them. "The snow-like crystals (carbon dioxide snow) knock contaminate particulates and molecules off the mirror," said Lee Feinberg, NASA optical telescope element manager. This technique will only be used if the James Webb Space Telescope's mirror is contaminated during integration and testing.

The Webb telescope is the scientific successor to NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. It will be the most powerful space telescope ever built. With a mirror seven times as large as Hubble's and infrared capability, Webb will be capturing light from 13.5 billion light years away. To do this, its mirror must be kept super clean. "Small dust particles or molecules can impact the science that can be done with the Webb," said Feinberg. "So cleanliness especially on the mirrors is critical." Credit: NASA/Goddard/Chris Gunn #nasagoddard #Webb #JWST
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nasagoddard The next three decades will see an end of the era of big ozone holes. In a new study, scientists from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center say that the ozone hole will be consistently smaller than 12 million square miles by the year 2040.

Ozone-depleting chemicals in the atmosphere cause an ozone hole to form over Antarctica during the winter months in the Southern Hemisphere. Since the Montreal Protocol agreement in 1987, emissions have been regulated and chemical levels have been declining. However, the ozone hole has still remained bigger than 12 million square miles since the early 1990s, with exact sizes varying from year to year.

The size of the ozone hole varies due to both temperature and levels of ozone-depleting chemicals in the atmosphere. In order to get a more accurate picture of the future size of the ozone hole, scientists used NASA’s AURA satellite to determine how much the levels of these chemicals in the atmosphere varied each year. With this new knowledge, scientists can confidently say that the ozone hole will be consistently smaller than 12 million square miles by the year 2040. Scientists will continue to use satellites to monitor the recovery of the ozone hole and they hope to see its full recovery by the end of the century.

Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center #nasagoddard #earth
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nasagoddard The smudge of stars at the center of this NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image is a galaxy known as UGC 5797. UGC 5797 is an emission line galaxy, meaning that it is currently undergoing active star formation. The result is a stellar population that is constantly being refurbished as massive bright blue stars form. Galaxies with prolific star formation are not only veiled in a blue tint, but are key to the continuation of a stellar cycle.

In this image UGC 5797 appears in front of a background of spiral galaxies. Spiral galaxies have copious amounts of dust and gas — the main ingredient for stars — and therefore often also belong to the class of emission line galaxies.

Spiral galaxies have disk-like shapes that drastically vary in appearance depending on the angle at which they are observed. The collection of spiral galaxies in this frame exhibits this attribute acutely: Some are viewed face-on, revealing the structure of the spiral arms, while the two in the bottom left are seen edge-on, appearing as plain streaks in the sky. There are many spiral galaxies, with varying colors and at different angles, sprinkled across this image — just take a look.

Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA # #🔭 #nasagoddard #Hubble
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nasagoddard On April 29 at 06:35 UTC (2:35 a.m. EDT), the MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured this visible image of Tropical Cyclone Quang in the Southern Indian Ocean.

On April 29, when Aqua passed over Quang, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument data provided a visible picture of Quang that showed a concentration of strong thunderstorms around the center of circulation and a band of thunderstorms winding into the center from the south.

The Australian Bureau of Meteorology forecast calls for Quang to move southeast over the next couple of days. Quang's center is forecast to approach Coral Bay around 8 p.m. local time on Saturday, May 2. Currently, there are no warnings in effect because the storm is not yet close to land.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team #nasagoddard # #
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Normal NASA Goddard
nasagoddard For five years, Jeremy Harbeck has worked as a support scientist for NASA’s Operation IceBridge, an airborne mission to study polar ice. The data processing that he does typically takes place in an office at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland. However, to speed the process of delivering data to the Arctic sea ice forecasting community, Harbeck traveled to Greenland for the first time in spring 2015.

He had just arrived at Greenland’s Thule Air Base on March 20 when a mechanical issue grounded the aircraft. No science flight could happen for a few days. As teams in the United States and Greenland scrambled to locate and deliver a replacement part, researchers on the ground waited. Some of them hiked to what was locally known as “the iceberg.” The unnamed berg pictured above has been frozen in place by sea ice in North Star Bay. Harbeck shot the photograph—a composite of four 49-second images—on March 21 at about 2:30 a.m. local time. The sun never fully sets at this time of year in the Arctic, so sunlight appears on the left side of the image. Lights from Thule are visible on the right side. Look for the Milky Way (top left) and a few very faint meteors visible in the early morning sky.

Credit: Photograph by Jeremy Harbeck, support scientist for NASA's Operation IceBridge mission. Caption by Kathryn Hansen. Via NASA's Earth Observatory #nasagoddard #earth #Ice #Thule #greenland
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nasagoddard The natural color image below, acquired on April 25 by the Advanced Land Imager on NASA’s Earth Observing-1 satellite, shows Calbuco’s plume rising above the cloud deck over Chile.

Credit: NASA via: NASA Earth Observatory #nasagoddard #volcano #Calbuco #Chile
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nasagoddard Submit YOUR photos to the Signs of Spring photo contest!

Today is the last day for NASA's GPM "Signs of Spring" photo contest, submit your photos before its too late!
Simply tag your photos with ‪#‎GPMSpring‬ and ‪#‎NASAGoddard‬ to enter.

Or you can submit your photos to the Flickr group: http://www.flickr.com/groups/gpm-extreme-weather/

Detail: http://pmm.nasa.gov/gpm-signs-of-spring-photo-contest

Credit: @rebroth
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Normal NASA Goddard
nasagoddard A new window to the universe opened for humanity on the morning of April 24, 1990, when NASA's Hubble Space Telescope was lofted into space, riding atop a Promethean flame from the space shuttle Discovery. NASA and ESA are celebrating the Hubble Space Telescope's silver anniversary of 25 years in space by unveiling some of nature's own fireworks — a giant cluster of about 3,000 stars called Westerlund 2. The cluster resides inside a vibrant stellar breeding ground known as Gum 29, located 20,000 light-years away in the constellation Carina. #Hubble25 1mon

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nasagoddard NASA Goddard GPM "Signs of Spring" Photo Contest!! Post and tag YOUR coolest photos of the signs of spring, and we’ll choose the best ones to post on the NASA website.

The submission period is from 3/30/15 - 4/27/15. You must use #GPMSpring and #NASAGoddard on your photos.
Please provide as much information with the submission as you are comfortable providing:

Your name, affiliation (e.g. school, community group, etc.), location where photo was taken (country, city, state, latitude, longitude), and any other interesting details about the photo and how it was taken.

Caption Great Wall at Mutianyu, seen here in April, is a section of the Great Wall of China located in Huairou County 70 km northeast of central Beijing.

Credit: @rebroth
Read all the details at: http://bit.ly/GPMSpringPhoto #GPMSpring #nasagoddard #contest #photocontest
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nasagoddard Ah, Earth, there's ‪#‎NoPlaceLikeHome‬. Kick back and enjoy these mesmerizing views of Earth from NASA.

Happy #EarthDay from @NASAGoddard!
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nasagoddard Happy ‪#‎EarthDay‬

This newly released composite image of southern Africa and the surrounding oceans was captured by six orbits of the NASA/NOAA NPP - Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership spacecraft on April 9, 2015, by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument. Tropical Cyclone Joalane can be seen over the Indian Ocean.

You can get a high-resolution version of this image on the NASA Goddard Flickr page.
Image Credit: Ocean Biology Processing Group at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center ‪‬ #nasagoddard #Earth #noplacelikehome
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nasagoddard NASA’s Operation IceBridge is deep into its Arctic 2015 campaign, flying low over Greenland’s ice sheets, outlet glaciers, and Arctic sea ice. The
airborne campaign flies over the Arctic and Antarctic every year measuring changes in the ice with instruments like radar and lasers.
This flight footage was taken from the cockpit of a NASA C-130 aircraft en route to the Helheim Glacier in eastern Greenland. Helheim has shrunk considerably
in recent years.
Music courtesy Moby, @richardmelvillehall

Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center #nasagoddard
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nasagoddard Landslides are among the most common and dramatic natural hazards, reshaping landscapes -- and anything in their path. Tracking when and where landslides occur worldwide has historically been difficult, because of the lack of a centralized database across all nations. But NASA researchers have updated the first publicly available Global Landslide Catalog, based on media reports and online databases that bring together many sources of information on landslides that have occurred since 2007. The catalog, originally released in 2010, is still the only one of its kind.
Around 6000 landslides are noted in the catalog. This wealth of data gives scientists a starting point to analyze where, how and why landslides are likely to occur. In particular, NASA researchers have begun to compare landslide occurrence with global rainfall data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission.
Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center #nasagoddard
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